Problem Solving, Particle Swarm Optimization, & Lewis Harrison’s Applied Game Theory

I was having a conversation with one of my students this week about how mathematics and computer sciences can solve extremely complex problems. She specifically asked me to describe it in a simple and understandable way.


This was not difficult to do since though I have some skill at understanding complex theories related to problem solving and decision science but I’m not very skilled at mathematics.

I walked with her outside of our retreat center and pointed to the sky. There was a swarm of Canadian Geese flying over head. I said to her, “That is a Particle Swarm. That pattern of geese is the basis of one of the most important problem solving t- tools ever developed “Particle Swarm Optimization”.


PSO. among the most common metaheuristic algorithms is  a computational method often used in In computer science,  that optimizes a problem by trying to improve a   a member of a set of possible solutions(a candidate solution) to a given problem with regard to a given measure of quality. Described in more simple terms Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)  is a mathematical, population  based algorithm for solving problems related to social behavior and engineering.

Particle Swarm Optimization combines rigid paradigms with more flexible social paradigms -social-psychological principles.  Swarm optimization provides insights into social behavior that was not easily recognized before.

PSO It has been used in many engineering applications, in art installations, to compose music, and to model organizations and markets. The first description of the particle swarm optimization algorithm was 1995 and was presented by James Kennedy and Russell C. Barnhart.

Kennedy and Barnhart observed that individuals naturally seem to solve problems most effectively by speaking with other individual.  Each individual remembers a situation where they were highly effective in solving a specific problem. This information is presented to others in the group (swarm.)  At the same time the individual is able to interact with and observe others in the swarm and note the optimum solution for the same problem.  This may possibly be a superior solution that may already exist in the swarm, or in areas of the swarm. As these individuals interact with the swarm and are a reflection of the swarm, their behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, change to ever-greater levels of effectiveness in the solving of problems.  In this algorithm any individual may be a potential or “ candidate” solution. This is known as a particle, hence the name “particle swarm.”


It is amazing to observe the changes that take place in the “swarm” of particles. It is as if individuals are moving toward one another in a social space where rapport and commonality of thought co-exist. (sociocognitive space.)


As with many mathematically based techniques (PSO) has evolved greatly since its development. The form in which it is presently applied is barely recognizable when compared to the original version of the algorithm.

This type of algorithm can be applied in LHAGT since that approach to problem solving and decision making  explores the use of problem solving skills, human resource skills and many other variables, interacting and continually elevating the process towards ever more productivity and effectiveness at a lower and lower cost.  This is the essence of Particle Swarm Optimization.

Even if an individual is not a mathematician they can  make sense out of this. What be required is the willingness of the individual to seek out experts, mathematicians, statisticians, and computer scientists to solve extreme problems using PSO.  PSO is one of the most valuable tools for  solve extreme problems and there are few downsides. As extreme problems of ever-greater difficulty present themselves, new modifications are developed for multi-objective optimization.  This solution can be applied to find solutions for linear or non-linear obstacles. Mathematicians have also modified PSOs to create new versions known as “repulsive particle swarm optimization.


PSO (2)

The master decision maker is defined as such because he/she has the ability and willingness to think out of the box and delegate to others who can do the same.

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Lewis Harrison is an author, content rich, motivational speaker, mentor and coach. You can reach him at

Lewis is an explicator and demystifier on the links between spirituality, game theory, quantum physics, economics, personal growth and human potential.

He often uses Swarm Optimization at trade shows where there are thousands of attendees.

He offers stress management programs throughout the United  States. Part of this company is  his corporate chair massage company, provides seated and chair massage for stress management seminars and trainings as well to special events for  meeting planners and meeting professionals in New York City, New Jersey Las Veges, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Greensboro NC, Florida and other major meeting and conventions venues.

The Illusion of Time in Game Theory

Foundational Principle for this Conversation on To explore how the effective use of time can give us greater access to our other core resources

Definition: Time – A continuous, measurable, progression of perceived existence. Among most groups time is defined as the past, present and future presented as a whole.


STUDENT: Why is an understanding of time and time management important to the Harrison Mentoring Process?

LEWIS: The ability to understand and when necessary manage and control time is a key element to creating love and freedom in life.


STUDENT: I am familiar with the term “Time Management.” Can you discuss this concept?

LEWIS: Time management integrates a number of techniques that aim to increase the effectiveness of a person in keeping commitments while getting the things done that need to be done.


STUDENT: Please explain this in greater detail.

LEWIS: Time is not a physical thing. It is only a tool of measurement.


STUDENT: So, though time is only a concept, can one still learn to manage it?

LEWIS: Yes. All tasks require a certain amount (measurement) of time. The less time a person has to complete a task, the more his or her decisions will be based on urgency. The more urgency an individual requires, the higher his or her emotional and physical cost (stress) is going to be. The goal is to reduce urgency, and thus manage time more effectively. An abundance of time gives you the freedom to make choices of low risk. You can actually create a system for scheduling actions that will maximize effectiveness and productivity.


STUDENT: What are some tools or techniques I can apply to maximizing the value of time?

LEWIS: To-do-lists, time planners, calendars, effective budgeting, the setting of deadlines on projects, daily meditation, priority planning and goal management are among the most popular examples of time management strategies. For me, the most important tool is the ability to distinguish between my wants and needs?


STUDENT: Please address wants and needs.

LEWIS: When our needs are being met we have a clearer sense of time as a tool for living well. When our wants and needs seem to be the same, we may begin to experience a false sense of urgency. This kind of thinking creates suffering and unnecessary struggle


STUDENT: How does one manage needs as they relate to time?

LEWIS: The key is to handle urgent affairs in a timely manner.


STUDENT: And what about non-urgent responsibilities?

LEWIS: One must integrate non-urgent yet important responsibilities, as well as trivial needs, into an organized daily schedule. It is important to always leave enough time in your schedule for unexpected occurrences. This will prevent time crunches and unnecessary struggling to keep time commitments. Remember, details which are trivial in the short term can become essential over time.


STUDENT: You mentioned meditation as a tool for mastering time. Please speak about this.

LEWIS: Daily Meditation shows us the illusion of time. Five minutes of meditation can seem like an hour and an hour of meditation can seem like five minutes.


STUDENT: Sitting quietly daily for 5 to 10 minutes will give you a true sense of how distorted time can seem. In the Jain faith there is a form of meditation known as Samayik.

LEWIS: This technique helps its practitioners to achieve a balance in time by making the present moment of time no more than a point between the past and the future. Samayika means being fully aware, alert and conscious in that very moment, so one may experience one’s true nature.



Lewis Harrison, the author of this blog is a speaker, consultant, and Contemporary Spiritual Teacher. He is a  pioneer in the personal development movement  The author of nine  self help books on human potential he offers seminar, workshops, retreats and phone based coaching. He is creating a series of ebooks entitled “Ask Lewis…” which will be available on line

Lewis offers phone-based and on-line life coaching services and created the course on Life Strategies www.How ToSolveAny  –  a simple system for decision making based on Game Theory, the idea expanded on by John Nash, the Nobel prize winning subject of the biopick “A Beautiful Mind”.